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Aermacchi M-346: The future training aircraft of the Hellenic Air Force

Aermacchi M-346: The future training aircraft of the Hellenic Air Force - GEOPOLITIKI.COM

Today’s article will be about one of our favorite training aircraft, the Italian Leonardo M-346, which will be used to train the next generation of Hellenic Air Force (HAF) pilots.

The M-346 will replace the older T-2 Buckeye training aircraft, which are no longer capable of providing the proper training required by the new fighter jets in service with the Hellenic Air Force.


The M-346 is a new-generation, twin-engine, two-seat training aircraft that features a fully digital cockpit and electronic systems. It has a length of 11.49 meters, a total wingspan of 9.72 meters, and can exceed 1,000 kilometers per hour using two Honeywell F124-GA-200 turbofan engines.

At the same time, it has a range of 1,925 kilometers and can fly for 4 hours carrying 3 external fuel tanks.

It integrates a range of aviation training systems such as ETTS (Embedded Tactical Training Simulation), TNA (Training Need Analysis), and TMIS (Training Management Information System).

Aermacchi M-346: The future training aircraft of the Hellenic Air Force - GEOPOLITIKI.COM
PHOTO By Oren Rozen – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=42475231


This is the combat version of the M-346. It provides close air support and reconnaissance missions. It carries a GRIFO-346 type X-frequency radar, which is a version of the company’s AESA GRIFO radar.

It can carry air-to-air missiles, air-to-surface missiles, laser-guided bombs, rockets , guns, and targeting, jamming, and intelligence-gathering pods.

The M-346 in Greek service

The Hellenic Air Force is to acquire a number of M-346’s under the agreement with the Israeli company Elbit Systems, and they will be stationed at the International Flight Training Center, Kalamata Air Base. They are currently under construction at Leonardo’s facilities in Italy.

To sum up

The M-346 is a top-notch training plane that is perfect for the Hellenic Air Force’s training needs. Their acquisition will boost the Hellenic Air Force Academy, laying a strong foundation for the future F-16V, Rafale and F-35 greek pilots.

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ASMP (Air-sol moyenne portée): The French nuclear cruise missile

ASMP (Air-sol moyenne portée): The French nuclear cruise missile - GEOPOLITIKI
PHOTO By French Air Force - French Air Force, Fair use

Today’s article will be dedicated to the deadly ASMP (Air-Sol Moyenne Portée) nuclear cruise missiles that arm the French Mirage 2000N and the Rafale F3 of the French Air Force and Navy.

It is a series of missile systems known to the French Armed Forces as “the last resort” before the use of strategic nuclear weapons.

The ASMP Development Program – Targeting the Soviet Union

The start of the ASMP development program was marked in 1978 by the company Aerospatiale, which aimed to develop a missile capable of destroying the air defence systems of the Soviet Union and replacing the AN-22 nuclear bombs used by the French Air Force. The cost of this program is estimated at approximately $1.37 billion.

Its construction was undertaken by MBDA France and the Ariane Group, with the missile finally entering service in 1986. Its first carriers were Dassault Mirage IV and Super Etendard aircraft.

ASMP (Air-sol moyenne portée): The French nuclear cruise missile

Technical characteristics and future improvements

The French companies ended up developing a guided cruise missile that was 5.38 meters long and weighed 860 kg. It has a 300 kiloton nuclear warhead as well as a solid fuel Ramjet engine, making it capable of reaching high speeds in a short amount of time.

In particular, the rocket can accelerate to a speed of Mach 2 within 5 seconds and reach a final speed of Mach 3 using its formidable engine. Its maximum range can reach 300 kilometers, depending on the launch altitude of the missile.

France continued to invest in this system, developing the supersonic ASMP-A as a replacement for the older ASMP and entering service in 2009. The new version, which also has a Ramjet engine, can engage targets over a greater distance (over 500 km) and at higher speeds (8 mach).

According to MBDA, it has a new thermonuclear warhead with increased penetration capabilities.


The ASMP/-A missile systems are some of NATO’s most capable tactical nuclear weapons that are sure to act as a deterrent to any adversary. Their use in the new Rafale versions certainly constitutes a strong asset in the hands of the French Air Force.

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AGM-158 JASSM: Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile

AGM-158 JASSM: Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile - GEOPOLITIKI
PHOTO: By Marco Jansen - Photograph by me, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4600955

The AGM-158 JASSM’s origins can be traced back to Northrop’s development of the AGM-137 TSSAM, but the Navy and Air Force ultimately chose the JASSM.

The original plan was for the AGM/MGM-137 Tri-Service Standoff Attack Missile to equip the B-52H, B-1, B-2, F-16 and F/A-18 in the Air Force and Navy, and in parallel, M270 ground launchers in the Army.

This program ran into technical and financial problems, and eventually the Army withdrew, which led to the cancellation of the program in 1994.

A look at the AGM/MGM-137 TSSAM

The technical characteristics of TSSAM were as follows:

  • Length: about 4.3 meters.
  • Gross Weight: 2,000 lbs/907 kg.
  • Warhead weight: 1,000 lb/450 kg.
  • Warhead type: unitary penetrator for the Navy and Air Force and with submunitions for the Army and alternatively for the Air Force.
  • Type of guidance: GPS and INS for all three branches, with Air Force and Navy IIR missiles in the final phase.
  • Range: greater than 100 nautical miles/185 kilometers.

The development of JASSM

After TSSAM was canceled, the Army went to ATACMS and the Air Force and Navy began development of JASSM. The two industries greatly benefited from TSSAM’s technology.

In the early stages the development of JASSM faced obstacles. In 1999 JASSM test flights began and in 2001 production of the first batches began. The problems appeared from 2003 onwards, with improvements and testing completed in 2009.


In general, JASSM is a long-range and low-cross-section radar cruise missile. So far it is certain that it will be in the arsenal of five countries. Specifically, outside the US, users include Australia, Poland, Finland and in the future Germany.

In its basic version as the AGM-158A JASSM, it bears enormous similarities to the TSSAM. Same overall weight, weight and warhead type but has a longer range (370km).

At the same time, it uses GPS and INS for guidance with the possibility of using an IIR searcher in the terminal phase. Using this achieves a CEP of less than 3 meters and 13 meters with GPS and INS alone.

AGM-158B JASSM-ER (Extended Range)

AGM-158 JASSM: Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile - GEOPOLITIKI
PHOTO By U.S. Air Force – Department of the Air Force, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=32480437

JASSM-ER is an improved version of JASSM, the development of which started in 2002. Its first tests were carried out in 2006 and the first operational batch was delivered in 2014.

Externally JASSM and JASSM-ER are identical. Their differences are on the inside, with the JASSM-ER having a larger fuel tank and a more efficient turbofan engine as opposed to the turbojet of the “regular” JASSM. This results in a missile range of 926-1,000 kilometers. Finally, it maintains the same guidance methods.

AGM-158C LRASM (Long Range Anti-Ship Missile)

LRASM is a modified version of JASSM-ER, specialized for anti-ship strikes.

Much emphasis was placed on the cruise missile having increased autonomous guidance capabilities to reduce the need for targeting by other platforms.

LRASM uses both a different interrogator, multi-mode RF, and data-link to get data in flight. At the same time, it uses a GPS system resistant to interference, INS, ESM and IIR sensor with the ability to “match” the target in front of it with the image of the one it has stored in the memory.

Although its range is not exactly known, based on the fact that it is a modification of the JASSM-ER but with more weight, it is estimated to be in the range of 500-600 km.

LRASM is already certified on the F/A-18 Super Hornet, B-1B Lancer and is being certified on the F-35, B-52H and possibly the P-8 Poseidon in the future. At the same time it can be launched from vertical launch cells (VLS) Mk41.AGM-158B-2 (Extreme Range)

It is the last known version of JASSM. It has gone through several name changes (AGM-158D, JASSM-D, JASSM-XR). Although not much is known about this version we do know that it will have a new fin design as well as a new coating to further reduce RCS and heat footprint.

At the same time, it will have a greater weight, a larger warhead and a much longer range that will approach 2,000 kilometers.

To Sum Up

The JASSM family is one of the most capable cruise missiles on the market. They are capable of hitting a wide range of targets, from infrastructure to ships. They can be used by fighters, bombers, ships and transports, through the Rapid Dragon.

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Turkish Minister of Defence threaten’s Greece again

Turkish Defense Minister Hulusi Akar Greece
Photo by Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Turkish Minister of Defence, Hulusi Akar, made new aggressive statements against Greece, calling the country to “Fix its minds and stop the armaments of the Hellenic Armed Forces.”

More Specifically, Turkish Minister of Defence Hulusi Akar stated:

“There are deep problems. Call us, let’s come to Greece, let’s talk, let’s talk here too. We can solve our problems. We expect Greece to abandon its actions and aggressive rhetoric that increase tension and speak as responsibly as possible. Don’t raise the volume, don’t disrupt the dialogue environment”

He didn’t stop there and spoke even more aggressively:

“Fix your minds, don’t get winded because of talking to third parties in any way, press your feet on the ground. Be smart and logical. Greece is also willing to rearm, which disturbs the calm and peace. Everyone should see this. Turkey is a strong, reliable and effective ally. Know this, adjust your behavior and your movements accordingly” Akar said in his statements.

B-21 Raider: A Historic day for aviation and the first 6th gen aircraft

B-21 Raider: A Historic day for aviation - GEOPOLITIKI
Photo by Norththrop Grumman via USAF

Yesterday was a historic day for global aviation, as the American company Northrop Grumman presented its new bomber aircraft with the name “B-21 Raider.”

This is the first aircraft of the 6th generation to be shown to the world. It is meant to replace the old bombers of the US Air Force.

According to the manufacturer, it has stealth features that will allow it to penetrate deep into areas where enemy air defence systems are deployed. It can also travel long distances while carrying both conventional and nuclear weapons.

Speaking at the ceremony, US Secretary of Defense Lloyd J. Austin said:

“Good evening, everyone. It’s great to be here on this proud day for the U.S. Air Force and for our country. Thank you, Admiral Grady, for the kind introduction. And thank you for your leadership of our joint force. And Kathy, congratulations to the whole team at Northrop Grumman for getting this big job done. Let me also thank the members of Congress from both sides of the aisle for joining us—and for supporting the investments that make the United States the best fighting force in the world.

I also want to take a moment to honor former Secretary of Defense Ash Carter, whom we lost far too soon. Secretary Carter knew that the complex security threats of our changing world demanded new thinking and new capabilities. So he helped start development on this new bomber. And we’re grateful for his leadership and his legacy. And I want to recognize everyone who worked on this aircraft over the past seven years. Despite the long hours, despite the pandemic, day after day, you showed up with determination and drive.

So let’s give the entire workforce a round of applause. Now, this U.S. Air Force bomber has been in development for seven years, but its roots go back much further. Eighty years ago, on a cold and rainy April morning four months after Pearl Harbor, 16 U.S. Army bomber planes took off from an aircraft carrier in the Pacific. And then-Lieutenant Colonel Jimmy Doolittle embarked on a daring mission. At high cost, he and his team of aviators flew more than 650 miles to strike distant enemy targets. And the Doolittle Raiders, as they came to be known, showed the strength and the reach of American airpower.

We have many family members of those brave pilots and crew members here with us today. Thank you all for joining us. The audacity of the Doolittle Raiders has inspired generations of American aviators. And it’s fitting that the next chapter in American airpower is named in their honor.

The B-21 Raider is the first strategic bomber in more than three decades.

It is a testament to America’s enduring advantages in ingenuity and innovation. And it’s proof of the Department’s long-term commitment to building advanced capabilities that will fortify America’s ability to deter aggression, today and into the future.

Now, strengthening and sustaining U.S. deterrence is at the heart of our National Defense Strategy. And so is our uniquely American spirit of innovation and invention. And if you want to see that strategy in action, if you want to see America’s enduring advantages in action, if you want to see integrated deterrence in action, well, just look at this aircraft. The B-21 looks imposing.

But what’s under the frame and the space-age coatings is even more impressive. Let’s talk about the B-21’s range. No other long-range bomber can match its efficiency. It won’t need to be based in-theater, and it won’t need logistical support to hold any target at risk. Let’s talk about the B-21’s stealth. Fifty years of advances in low-observable technology have gone into this aircraft. And even the most sophisticated air-defense systems will struggle to detect a B-21 in the sky.

Let’s talk about the B-21’s durability. We don’t really have a capability unless we can maintain it. And the B-21 is carefully designed to be the most maintainable bomber ever built. And let’s talk about what the B-21 can deliver. The Raider is designed to deliver both conventional and nuclear munitions, with formidable precision. So like generations of U.S. bombers before it, the B-21 will be able to support joint and coalition forces across the full spectrum of operations. And the Raider was built with an open-system architecture, which makes it highly adaptable. So as the United States continues to innovate, this bomber will be able to defend our country with new weapons that haven’t even been created yet. And the B-21 is multi-functional.

It can handle anything from intel gathering to battle management to integrating with our allies and partners. And it will work seamlessly across domains, and across theaters, and across the joint force. That makes it vital to our mission to defend America and deter aggression. And the B-21’s edge will last for decades to come. America’s defense will always be rooted in deterring conflict. So we are again making it plain to any potential foe: the risks and costs of aggression far outweigh any conceivable gains. Now, we could spend all night marveling at this tremendous aircraft. But I want everyone to understand how it came together.

The B-21 is the result of deep teamwork at this plant.

B-21 Raider: A Historic day for aviation
PHOTO by Northrop Grumman via USAF

Our Air Force pilots, maintainers, and DOD civilians have worked shoulder-to-shoulder with their industry counterparts. In fact, they’ve been on the production line here in Palmdale to assist. So the B-21 is a testament to the best of America’s vibrant and diverse industrial base. You know, this sort of advance doesn’t just happen. It takes investment. It takes cooperation. And it takes partnership.

The Department is going to continue to invest in tech. We’re going to bring new companies into our supplier base. And we’re going to keep honing our acquisitions process to get the right capabilities, before we need them. That’s not always easy. But it’s always vital. This bomber was built on a foundation of strong, bipartisan support in Congress. And because of that support, we will soon fly this aircraft, test it, and then move into production. And we will build the bomber force in numbers suited to the strategic environment ahead. And finally, this aircraft was possible because of American innovation. That’s something deep in the American spirit. We’re driven to keep pushing the limits.

We’re powered by the boldness of open minds and the confidence of an open society. And that’s a strategic advantage that no competitor can match. Ladies and gentlemen, this is deterrence the American way. It’s driven by some of America’s great strengths—by the openness of our democracy, by partnerships with free enterprise that can deliver unmatched innovation, and by the outstanding men and women in uniform who freely dedicate their lives to keeping our country safe.

You know, back in 1985, at a ceremony at the White House, President Reagan pinned a fourth star on General Doolittle’s uniform. The President recalled the bravery of the Doolittle Raiders. And he said that at a time of great challenge, they had “revitalized America’s fighting spirit.” And just a few years after that ceremony, the United States unveiled the B-2 Spirit—right here at this site. And the B-2 reminded the world what American innovation and airpower could do.

Today, we continue that evolution in our deterrence with the first bomber of the 21st century. This isn’t just another airplane. It’s not just another acquisition. It’s a symbol and a source of the fighting spirit that President Reagan spoke of. It’s the embodiment of America’s determination to defend the republic that we all love. It’s a testament to our strategy of deterrence—with the capabilities to back it up, every time and everywhere. That’s what America does. And here at Palmdale, you’ve done it once again. So thanks, everyone. And may God continue to bless the United States of America”

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OPINION: The Cypriot National Guard after the lifting of US Arms embargo and Ukraine

OPINION: Cyprus after the lifting of US Arms embargo and Ukraine - GEOPOLITIKI
CINCU, Romania - U.S. Army Soldiers of 1st Battalion, 66th Armored Regiment, 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, setup their M1 Abram Tanks during Getica Saber 17, July 10, 2017. Getica Saber 17 is a U.S.-led fire support coordination exercise and combined arms live fire exercise that incorporates six allied and partner nations with more than 4,000 Soldiers. Getica Saber 17 runs concurrent with Saber Guardian 17, a U.S. Army Europe-led, multinational exercise that spans across Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania with more than 25,000 service members from 22 allied and partner nations.

The United States has decided to end its unfair arms embargo against the Republic of Cyprus, allowing the Cypriot National Guard to gain access to a wide variety of previously restricted military equipment.

At this point in time, the vast majority of the equipment used by the Cypriot National Guard originates from Russia. T-80U tanks and BMP-3 are just two examples of the Russian-origin weaponry that forms the backbone of the defenses maintained by the Republic of Cyprus against Turkey.

The Cypriot National Guard T-80U sent a deadly message to Turkey

As a result of the lifting of the arms embargo, Cyprus now has the opportunity to completely replace the weapons of Russian origin with corresponding Western systems.

This is extremely important because, in light of the events that are happening in Ukraine, the maintenance of Russian weapon systems that are maintained by Western countries like Cyprus is regarded as being especially uncertain.

Since Cyprus can’t risk “running out” of spare parts for the Russian systems it uses, these weapons will probably need to be replaced in the future. 

Now, if Cyprus properly leverages the situation with the war in Ukraine, it could immediately replace all of the Russian originated T-80U tanks with corresponding western ones, such as the Leopard 2 or the M1A2 Abrams, and the Russian originated anti-aircraft systems with corresponding western ones, if there is a positive reaction from the United States.

OPINION: Cyprus after the lifting of US Arms embargo and Ukraine
A U.S. Marine AH-1Z Viper with Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron (HMLA) 167 takes off in Charleston, West Virginia, July 26, 2019. HMLA-167 is subordinate command of 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing. (U.S. Marine Corps photo by Staff Sgt. William L.Holdaway)

Moreover, for the first time ever, Cyprus has access to the market of weapons systems that the United States keeps in reserve, beginning with AH-1Z Viper attack helicopters that could provide enormous capabilities in support of ground operations and ending with massive amounts of ammunition and modern anti-tank weapons.


OPINION: Cyprus after the lifting of US Arms embargo and Ukraine
PHOTO: Ukrainian Ministry of Defense

Concerning Ukraine, the Cypriot Russian-origin weapon systems have the potential to improve the operational capabilities of the Ukrainian army, which would be helpful in the fight against Russian aggression.

Ukrainian Armed Forces will have no problem operating this tanks and armored vehicles as they also operate similar or identical weapon systems.

To summarize, the Cypriot National Guard will soon probably have to reconsider the deployment and maintenance of its Russian-origin systems. However, as Cyprus has 37% of its land occupied by Turkey, a main precondition is that the United States and Western states will have to immediately replace the Russian-origin systems that can be gifted to Ukraine.


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EUNOMIA: Greek Armed Forces are ready to defend Cyprus

EUNOMIA: Greek Armed Forces are ready to defend Cyprus - GEOPOLITIKI

Cyprus is not “far away,” as the Hellenic Navy and the Hellenic Air Force have been continually proving over the past few years, including during the “EUNOMIA” exercise.

According to a recent announcement by Hellenic Army General Staff, “on Thursday 06 October 2022, the Quadrilateral Aeronautical Exercise named “EUNOMIA 3-22”, which took place in the Eastern Mediterranean, as part of the Coordinated Quadrilateral Initiative QUAD of Greece, France, Italy and Cyprus, was completed.

“EUNOMIA 3-22” was held for the first time in 2020 and its coordination for 2022 was taken over by Italy. During the Exercise, objects of Search & Rescue, protection of a hydrocarbon mining rig, as well as objects of anti-submarine warfare, surface warfare and combating air threats were performed.

The purpose of the Exercise was to strengthen cooperation in the field of aeronautical operations, to ensure freedom of navigation in the region, as well as to strengthen the interoperability and combat capability of the participating units.

The Hellenic Armed Forces participated with the Frigate SALAMIS, the Submarine KATSONIS, 6 F-16s, 1 Flying radar EMB-145H and a Team of the Underwater Demolition Command (DYK).

France participated with 2 RAFALE fighter jets, Italy with the Frigate ITS LIBECCIO and Cyprus with the IOANNIDIS Offshore Patrol Vessel, one AW-139 Helicopter, one Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) and Special Operations Unit.

On Thursday 06 October 2022 and at the end of the Exercise, the Distinguished Visitors Day (DV Day) took place, the activities of which were attended by representatives of all 4 QUAD Countries, including the Vice Commander of the Fleet Rear Admiral Polychronis Koulouris as representative of the Hellenic Army General Staff, the Chief of General Staff of the National Guard Lieutenant General Demokritos Zervakis, the Commander of the French Mediterranean and Black Sea Naval Forces Vice Admiral Gilles Boidevezi and the Commander of the 1st Naval Command of the Italian Navy Rear Admiral Lorenzano Di Renzo.

During the DV Day, which took place at sea under the coordination of Italy and Cyprus in the maritime area east of Limassol, search and rescue operations, fast rope rescues, and Hellenic Air Force fighter jet flights were carried out.

“EUNOMIA 3-22″, which is part of the international cooperations of the Hellenic Armed Forces in accordance with the planning of the Greek Army General Staff, demonstrates the collective intention and commitment of the Armed Forces of the 4 Member States of the European Union in terms of implementation and respect of the International Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), with the aim of highlighting the role played by Greece, Cyprus, France and Italy as pillars for the promotion of security and stability in the wider region of the Eastern Mediterranean” concludes the announcement of Hellenic Army General Staff.

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German Minister of Defense: “We must be prepared”

German Minister of Defense:
(U.S. Army Europe photo by Visual Information Specialist Markus Rauchenberger/released)

During a recent trip to Lithuania, the German Minister of Defense, Christine Lambrecht, stated that NATO must boost its efforts for collective security in order to protect its members against Russia.

Christine Lambrecht stated:

“The fact is that we, NATO, must do more for our common security because we cannot know how far Putin’s delusions of grandeur can go. We’ve heard Russia’s threats to Lithuania, which was implementing European sanctions on the border with Kaliningrad. These are not nearly the first threats, and we must take them seriously and be prepared,”

“The security of Lithuania is the security of Germany. It is this promise of common security that we are recommitting ourselves to today,” the German Defense Minister Christine Lambrecht said.

Christine Lambrecht is a German lawyer and politician who is aligned with the Social Democratic Party (SPD). She was born on June 19, 1965, and has held the position of Federal Minister of Defense in the government of Chancellor Olaf Scholz since December 2021.

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Ukraine struck the Kerch Bridge, a huge blow for Russian reinforcements in Kherson

Ukraine struck the Kerch Bridge, a huge blow for Russian reinforcements in Kherson - GEOPOLITIKI
PHOTO via Twitter

A huge explosion hit the Kerch bridge that connects Russia with Crimea and is one of the main supply routes for the Russian troops in Kherson.

Ukrainian forces appear to have planted a vehicle with explosives on the bridge and detonated it as a train filled with fuel tanks passed by, on one of the bridge’s sections, multiplying the force of the explosion.

Based on the first public photos, part of the bridge has already collapsed and the damage seems to be quite significant. In a video that has been made public, both the road and the rail bridge have been destroyed, and a burning train can be seen in the background.

Although the Ukrainian side did not take responsibility for the attack, the adviser to the Ukrainian president, Mykhailo Podoliak, said in a post that this explosion is only the beginning.

Ukraine seems to be using its sabotage units in recent months with great efficiency, making full use of the information it constantly receives from Western countries. On the contrary, Russia seems quite exposed in the field of intelligence.

The incident is still ongoing and the Russian side is investigating the causes that led to the explosion.

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Greek Foreign Minister: “We will defend our existence by any legal means”

Greek Foreign Minister:

The Greek Foreign Minister Nikos Dendias during his statements after the end of his meeting with his Polish counterpart, Zbigniew Rau responded to the recent provocations of Turkish government officials.

Nikos Dendias said in parts of his statements:

“Today, I also had the opportunity to brief Zbigniew on the latest developments in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Turkish involvement in Libya, following on from the briefing I provided to my EU colleagues and US Deputy Secretary of State V. Nuland in New York in September.

I presented the escalation of Turkey’s provocative rhetoric that is constantly taking on new, greater dimensions. Sometimes not, on a personal level.

Let me be honest. We are not going to be deterred. But we’re not going to get dragged into a verbal sparring contest either.

We have clearly stated that Greece is ready to defend its territory, its sovereignty, its sovereign rights, its existence. With all the legal means at his disposal.

We are pleased to see that the European Union, the USA, Germany and our Egyptian friends have publicly denounced Turkish practices.

They point out the obvious: that the current Tripoli government does not have the authority to sign international agreements.

Both the previous and the recent “Memorandum of Cooperation”, signed between the government of Tripoli and Turkey, are illegal, invalid and non-existent,” said Nikos Dendias.

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