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Tactical exercises of Radiological Chemical and Biological Protection Troops units at Shikhani training ground
PHOTO By Vitaly V. Kuzmin

The TOS-1 Buratino is unique in the world Russian self-propelled MLRS system that has seen action globally in conflict zones such as Afghanistan, Chechnya, Iraq and Syria.

The specialty of TOS-1 is the elimination of heavily fortified positions.

It has acquired a uniquely frightening reputation due to the impact it causes on any enemy force that comes up against it due to the incendiary type of ammunition it launches as a modern “liquid fire”

The pressure generated by a TOS-1 explosion amounts to 427 pounds per square inch.

To make it more understandable, most conventional bomb explosions generate about half of this amount, and the normal air pressure is fourteen pounds per square inch.

People near the centre of a TOS-1 explosion radius are crushed to death.

Further out, hyper pressure can break bones, dislocate the eyes, cause internal bleeding and break the eardrums, intestines and other internal organs. It also consumes air from the lungs of its victims, likely causing them to collapse, leading to death from suffocation.

The first war use of the TOS-1 Buratino is recorded between 1988 and 1989 against Afghan rebels in the rugged territory of the Panjshir Valley.

However, in 1999, the same year that TOS-1 was first officially revealed to the public, TOS-1 made its first name in the siege of the Chechen capital Grozny.

The use of TOS-1 to eliminate entire blocks of building blocks by the Russian army in Grozny has prompted a series of complaints about collateral damage. In fact, in a coordinated Tos-1 bombardment with other artillery units, it killed thirty-seven civilians and wounded more than two hundred.

By the time the battle for Grozny was over, the city had turned into a ruin.

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